Historical Orchard Management Methods: A Review

Training & Pruning Systems, A-Z

  • Baldassari Palmette (detail required)
  • Bi-Axis (detail required)
  • Bouche-Thomas Fruit Hedge System (detail required)
  • Central Leader by Heinicke (1975?).
  • Cone by Gandev (2009)
  • Courtois Method a.k.a. Short-Spur or 3-Bud Method (1884).
  • Dalchow pruning (pre. 1954 – mention in Champagnat, additional source info required).
  • Desbois Method (1911).
  • Drilling (Triplet) System by Widmer and Krebs (1997).
  • KNNN training (c.1990 – 2006?) arching espalier, based on Lepage system, developed by Bob Magnus in Tasmania.
  • Lepage arcure (c.1950?) – training system utilising arching stems.
  • Long-Spur Method (c.1900).
  • Lorette System (1914).
  • Marchand System (detail required)
  • Mikado System by Widmer & Krebs (1997).
  • Mini-Tatura trellis by Robinson et al (1989).
  • Modified Lorette System (1920s?).
  • Open Tatura (detail required)
  • Palmette (detail required)
  • Slender Pyramid (detail required)
  • Slender Spindle by Wertheim (1968).
  • Solen System by Lespinasse (1980s).
  • Super Spindle (detail required)
  • Tall Spindle (detail required)
  • Tatura Trellis by Chalmers and Van den Ende (1975).
  • Vertical Axis by Lespinasse (1975).
  • V-Slender Spindle by Krebs (1988).
  • V-Super Spindle (detail required)
  • Ypsilon System (detail required)
  • Y-trellis by Robinson et al (1989).

Dates Unconfirmed
1950s? – Marchand (drapeau Marchand) system (mention in Lespinasse et. al.)
1950s? – Baldassari palmette / Ypsilon system (mention in Lespinasse et. al.)

Modern Commercial Systems:
Open Tatura
Slender Pyramid
Super Spindle
Tall Spindle
V-Super Spindle

Pomology Developments – a Timeline

Please N.B. the following is very much a work-in-progress, which I’m adding to as source material is assessed (and time allows…)

1502 – Mention of tree grafting in Arnold’s Chronicle (a.k.a. The Customs of London).
1779 – Publication: The British Fruit Gardener and Art of Pruning by John Abercrombie (UK).
1884 – Courtois Method of pruning (France).
1900 c. – Long-Spur Method of pruning (France).
1911 – Desbois Method of pruning (France).
1914 – Lorette System of pruning, (France).
1926-28 – Auxin demonstrated and described by Frits Warmolt Went.
1945 – Delbart Tri-Cross system (mention in Lespinasse et. al.)
1948 – Bouche-Thomas fruit-hedge system (mention in Lespinasse et. al.)
1950s – Lepage arcure (‘Lepage bowing’) system of stem-arching (France)
1954 – Kinetin (cytokinin) isolated by Miller, Skoog et. al.
1954 – Publication: The Pruning of Fruit Trees by Paul Champagnat, trans. N.B. Bagenal (UK edtn).
1955 – Publication: Fruit From Trained Trees by Stanley B. Whitehead (UK).
1968 – Slender Spindle training system developed by Wertheim in the Netherlands for high-density M9 rootstock planting.
1975 – Central Leader pruning system recommended by Heinicke / USDA for high density orchard production.
1975 – Vertical Axis system developed by Lespinasse (France).
1975 – Tatura Trellis system developed by Chalmers and Van den Ende (Australia).
1980s – Solen system developed by Lespinasse (France).
1988 – V-Slender spindle system developed by Krebs.
1989 – Mini-Tatura trellis and Y-trellis systems developed by Robinson et. al. (Australia??)
1990c. – Solaxe System of pruning (France)
1990 – 2006 (?) – KNNN (knee-navel-nipple-nose) system of training (Bob Magnus, Tasmania – pdf).
1997 – Mikado System developed by Widmer and Krebs.
1997 – Drilling (Triplet) System developed by Widmer and Krebs.
2004-13 – Centrifugal Training system developed by Lauri (and Lespinasse?) (France).
2005 – Publication: De La Taille à la Conduite des Arbres Frutiers ed. Lespinasse & Leterme (French language edition)
2011 – Publication: Growing Fruit Trees ed. Lespinasse & Leterme (English language edition of 2005 publication).
2009 – Cone training system developed by Gandev (Bulgaria).
2016-18 – Salsa Training system developed by Lauri (France).
2017? – Fruit(ing) Wall / Le Mur Fruitier system (France?).

Sources / Bibliography

  • [1954] The Pruning of Fruit Trees – Paul Champagnat – natural & artificial tree forms, Courtois (short spur) method, Long Spur method, Lorette method, general notes on tree morphology & growth patterns, summer & winter pruning.
  • [2005] Growing Fruit Trees – ed. Jean Marie Lespinasse, Evelyne Leterme – chapters on apple and pear growing (plus others) detailing training, tree Types I – IV, extinction pruning method (apples), &c.